Malic Acid | Baking Ingredients | BAKERpedia

Malic acid is found in many sour or tart-tasting foods such as fruit; it’s used to add flavor and texture to fruit fillings and jellies in baked goods.

 What is Malic Acid?

Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with the molecular formula C4H6O5 (Figure 1). It is made by all living organisms and it contributes to the pleasantly sour taste of fruits. Malic acid is used as a flavor enhancer, flavor agent and adjuvant, and pH control agent in food products.1

L- Malic acid


Malic acid was first isolated from apply juice in 1785, by the Swedish Chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who referred to it as “acid of apples.”2


  • Malic acid has a clean, mellow, smooth, persistent sourness.
  • It has flavor enhancement and blending abilities. Malic acid aids the formulator, because it intensifies the impact of many flavors in foods or beverages, often reducing the amount of flavor needed; it blends distinct flavors resulting in a well-rounded flavor experience; it improves aftertaste by extending the impact of some flavors; it increases burst and aromaticity of some flavor notes in certain beverage applications; it boosts savory flavors like cheese and hot peppers in snack food coatings; it deepens and broadens the flavor profile of many products, resulting in a richer, more natural flavor experience.
  • It has a high solubility rate.
  • It has lower hygroscopicity than citric or tartaric acids.
  • It has a lower melting point than other acids for easier incorporation into molten confections.
  • It has good chelating properties with metal ions.

Commercial Production

Malic acid has two stereoisomeric forms (L- and D- enantiomers), and only the L-isomer exists naturally. Commercial production of malic acid is by hydration of fumaric acid or maleic acid and the product is DL-malic acid.1


  • When malic acid is used to enhance flavors, usually less flavor additives are needed. This improves economies while the overall flavor profile is broader and more natural.
  • In the non-carbonated beverages, malic acid is a preferred acidulant since it could enhance fruit flavors, and mask the aftertaste of some salts.
  • In powdered mixes, malic acid is preferred due to its rapid dissolution rate.
  • In beverage containing intense sweeteners, malic acid’s extended sourness masks sweetener aftertaste and its blending and fixative abilities give a balanced taste.
  • In calcium-fortified beverages, using malic acid in place of citric acid prevents turbidity due to precipitated calcium citrate.
  • Malic acid has a lower melting point than other food acids- this means that it can be incorporated into the molten hard candy without added water- shelf life is increased since the initial moisture level in the hard candy is lower.
  • Bakery products with fruit fillings (cookies, snack bars, pies, and cakes) have a stronger and more naturally balanced fruit flavor when the fruit filling includes malic acid. Pectin gel texture is more consistent due to Malic Acid’s buffering capacity.
  • Malic acid is the predominately active ingredient for prune juice concentrate as the natural mold inhibitor for baking products.3

FDA Regulation

Malic acid is affirmed as GRAS by FDA which is listed in the Code of Federal Regulations (Title 21 Part 184.1069)1. The ingredients are used in food, except baby food, at levels not to exceed good manufacturing practice. Current good manufacturing practice results in a maximum level, as served, of 3.4% for nonalcoholic beverages, 3.0% for chewing gum, 0.8% for gelatins, pudding, and fillings, 6.9% for hard candy, 2.6% for jams and jellies, 3.5% for processed fruits and fruit juices, 3.0% for soft candy, 0.7% for all other food categories.1


  1. “21CFR184.1069.” CFR – Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. N.p., 1 Apr. 2016.
  2. Jensen, William B. “Malic, Maleic and Malonic Acid.” Ask the Historian (2007): 1-2. Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati. Web. Accessed on 27 June 2016.
  3. Renee Alberts-Nelson. “Clean Label Mold Inhibitors for Baking”. Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension FAPC-173, 2010.

Sexual misconduct often part of the job in hospitality work



Sexual misconduct often part of the job in hospitality work

CHICAGO (AP) — One woman recalls how a general manager at a Chicago-area restaurant where she worked told her that if security cameras recorded him reaching between her legs and grabbing her genitals, he could simply “edit that out.”

Another woman worked at an Atlanta restaurant and says her boss did nothing when two dishwashers kept making vulgar comments, so she quit wearing makeup to look less attractive and hopefully end the verbal abuse.

In the wake of sexual misconduct allegations against several prominent men in entertainment, politics and journalism, accounts like the ones these women share quietly play out in restaurants, bars and hotels across the country and rarely get the headlines.

Court documents and interviews with the women and experts on the topic show hospitality industry workers are routinely subjected to sexual abuse and harassment from bosses, co-workers and customers that are largely unchecked. The nature of the work, which often has employees relying on tips, can make them especially vulnerable to abuse.

“I was absolutely humiliated,” said Sharonda Fields, who said the abuse at the Atlanta restaurant began shortly after she started working there last year. “It was degrading. I felt embarrassed. I felt low. I just felt like nothing happened when those guys talked to me that way, and especially when the staff and the managers knew what was going on. It made me feel like dirt.”

She filed a lawsuit against the restaurant last spring. Calls to the restaurant from The Associated Press went unanswered.

Joyce Smithey, an Annapolis, Maryland, attorney who has handled several sexual harassment lawsuits, said those accused of misconduct “have a great sense of who the victims are, who the women are who will put up with this, who need the job, are so scared they don’t fight back.”…

READ ON: Sexual misconduct often part of the job in hospitality work



Menu Psychology: The Science Behind Menu Engineering


There are multiple nuances that restaurants can use with their menus to coax customers into spending on more high-profit dishes. Read our resource article on the topic.

For years, restaurateurs have struggled with how to lay out a menu that is informative, readable, and — most importantly — profitable. While the debate on what does or does not work for certain is still raging, psychologists have conducted enough studies to conclusively arrive at a list of practices that every business should incorporate into their restaurant menu templates. With these subtle nods and nudges, you’re not only making strides toward profitability, but also customer satisfaction, giving you the best of both worlds.


Menu theory splits foods into different categories to address them. There are:

  • “Stars” (high profit, high sales)
  • “Puzzles” (high profit, low sales)
  • “Plow horses” (low profit, high sales)
  • “Dogs” (low profit, low sales)

The general idea is that you want to show off your stars, improve your puzzles, keep your plow horses, and generally sell or drop your dogs. By figuring out which of your foods fall into these categories, organizing your menu becomes much, much easier.

If you don’t have sales figures for your menu items to categorize them, take some time to gather the data so you can make the most profitable decision when creating a layout.

What We Know

There are multiple nuances that restaurants can use with their menus to coax customers into spending on more high-profit dishes. First, refrain from using currency indicators like dollar signs. These symbols make customers feel like they’re spending more, even when they’re not. Similarly, avoid using prices that include 99 cents on the end, regardless of how affordable the product may be. Because of countless factors, including television infomercials, reading a price listed with .99 on the end is considered to be cheap and unsatisfying. Using .95 to indicate cents is much more successful than .99 since it feels “friendlier,” although many restaurants make the choice to do away with decimals all together and simply round to the best dollar. Regardless of your choice, make sure you at least don’t use price columns, which call attention to what you’re charging, and never use price trails (the “…” before a price), which are even worse.

Wording is equally important since the proper phrasing can make a customer’s mouth water before they even see their food, increasing your earnings by as much as 27%. Ethnic (“Italian”) or geographic (“Tuscany”) terms are especially helpful in conveying flavors or a sense of atmosphere in your restaurant as a whole…

READ ON: Menu Psychology: The Science Behind Menu Engineering

Design your own menu for free using WebstaurantStore design service.



Removing Pesticides From Fruit

Kate Sheridan,Newsweek Wed, Oct 25 2:45 PM EDT

Finish reading: Your Fruit Is Covered With Nasty Pesticides: Scientists Have Discovered the Best Way to Wash Them Off



Ep. 21 – Art Meets Purpose: Designing Conscious Food Experiences With Ravi DeRossi

Ravi DeRossi owns 15 successful restaurants and cocktail bars in New York City – and he’s on a mission to make every item on their menus plant-based.

In this engaging and unique conversation, he also shares his bold vision and gives exclusive details about 4 new concepts he has for future restaurants. Ravi started his career as a painter and you will learn he approaches the restaurant business with all the flair and creativity of an artist.

To hear more about how Ravi plans to remake the canvas of the food world, keep listening…

Finish reading: Ep. 21 – Art Meets Purpose: Designing Conscious Food Experiences With Ravi DeRossi – #EatForThePlanet With Nil Zacharias – Google Play Music



The Best Way To Peel and Cut Butternut Squash 

Butternut squash
Butternut squash isolated on white background

We know you hate having to peel and cut butternut squash, but with this amazing trick, you have no excuse for buying it prepackaged. Get the recipe on Tasting Table.

The Super-Simple Trick to Peeling Butternut Squash

Never fear peeling butternut squash again with this seriously easy hack
We might be in the thick of squash season, but that doesn’t mean you should struggle with those, er, thick skins anymore. We’ve got an amazing trick that makes peeling butternut squash so much easier.

Stick the squash in the microwave to soften the skin before peeling.

Just a few minutes in the microwave means you don’t have to worry about chopping off a finger when you’re hacking at that rock-hard exterior. Watch the video above for a full demonstration of the following steps.

Prick the skin of the squash all over with a fork.

Slice off both ends of the squash.

Microwave the squash for about 3½ minutes. This softens the skin considerably.

Let the squash cool enough to handle, or use a towel to hold it, and simply peel away the skin…

Finish reading: The Best Way To Peel and Cut Butternut Squash | Tasting Table




From Chef Davies-Tight: The folks over at Penzeys Spices sent me this email today 23 July 2016. It’s an interesting slant on cooks. Give it a read.


Five years ago today the world lost a great talent, a great mind, and a great heart in the passing of musician Amy Winehouse at the age of 27. Just this last year the movie Amy, which tells her story, won the Oscar for best documentary. Amy is a very good film. If you have the chance to watch it this weekend please do. It’s available through Amazon Prime, or can be rented/purchased through iTunes or Amazon, and is well worth the cost. You can check out the official trailer here on YouTube.

As Penzeys pivots from just trying to preserve what’s left of cooking to restoring cooking to the place we all need it to be, the first step is to get people to see the value in cooking. Part of that is me regularly quoting the stats about how all the good things in life happen 25% more, and the bad things happen 25% less, when people cook and share meals together. Equally important is for you to look around and open your eyes to all the good you set in motion by being a person kind enough to cook. You really should feel proud of what you do.

But to truly see the value in cooking we can’t just focus on statistics and positive outcomes. Now and again we need an honest, up-close look at what happens when someone in need of the constant love at the heart of cooking goes without. In some ways I feel Amy Winehouse is our time’s Anne Frank. Her story is something we all need to see. And even though it is sad, heartbreaking even, somehow through her sprit, and her talent, and just by who she is, her story becomes uplifting—inspirational even.

And as long as I’m putting demands on your weekend, if you end up watching Amy, can you keep an eye on your feelings as you are watching it? As you witness her life unfold, don’t be surprised to find that the very same part of you that makes you cook has you reaching out towards the screen to try to find some way to give her the love she so clearly needed. All too often these days, cooks dismiss what they do as nothing special, when in reality what cooks do is pretty much the only thing keeping this world together. Cooking matters.

In the film, Tony Bennett has a great quote: “If you live long enough, life teaches you how to live.” Cooks know how to live. We need to start sharing that with the world. Let’s not lose any more Amys. Thanks for being a cook.





Are cast iron pans unsafe? 

by KamalPatel  Jun 8, 2016

For well over a thousand years, cast iron has been used as a reliable cooking surface. Actually, it’s been used since the appropriately named “Iron Age”, roughly 2500 years ago.Fast forward a couple millennia, and we’ve been thrust into the “Spend all day on the Internet Age”. People are starting to question the healthiness of everything, including the venerable cast iron. And not without reason: just because cast iron’s been used for years, by many people who lived long and healthy lives, doesn’t necessarily mean it’s the healthiest option for your frying pan.Let’s explore this issue in depth. What exactly is cast iron? Are there any plausible mechanisms by which it might harm health? What does the research say?

Aside from stone, iron is the oldest cooking surface still in use. This provides evidence for its lack of obvious harm, but doesn’t necessarily mean it’s totally safe.

Paying the iron price

Cast iron is relatively easy to analyze, as far as health effects go. It’s made out of … iron. Not like the more complex pans, which have multiple layers or man-made coatings. So let’s start by talking a little bit about iron.

You can’t just dig up pure iron from the ground. Pure iron is rare and mainly comes from fallen meteorites. And it’s actually pretty soft, so not great for making pans without adding in some carbon for hardening. But still, around 97-98% of a cast iron pan is plain ol’ iron, which is why we’re so interested in its health effects. Our discussion also applies to carbon steel cookware (such as woks), which is made up of 99% iron…

Finish reading: Are cast iron pans unsafe? – Blog |




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