BREADS. Read ingredient labels before purchasing all types of bread. Many breads contain animal products, usually in the form of non-fat milk solids, whey (sodium caseinate)butter, milk fat, eggs, or other animal fat. Hot dog and hamburger buns are the most difficult to find without one or more of these ingredients. However, they do exist, so shop around.

When a French baguette is called for in a recipe, it refers to a long, narrow  (about 2-1/2 inches in diameter) loaf, not the long, fat loaves. If not obtainable, and if needed for an hors d’oeuvre recipe, use the fatter loaf, but cut slices into smaller, hors d’oeuvre size pieces.

Grinder rolls are an Italian equivalent to submarine, hoagie or hero rolls. Grinder rolls, however, can usually be purchased hard-crusted, which is usually what we want when requesting them in a recipe.

HARD-CRUSTED BREAD. Make your own hard-crusted bread or rolls by placing your soft-crusted bread or rolls on the middle rack of a preheated 325 degree oven, uncovered, till the outside surfaces become crispy. Anywhere between 3-7 minutes will do depending upon the thickness of the crust.

TORTILLAS. Although you might not expect flour tortillas to contain milk, often times they do, so again, check labels.

When you’re purchasing breads from a bakery shop, you have a right to know if the ones you’re interested in contain any animal products. Ask. If the response is, “I don’t think so”, that’s not definitive enough.